Papers Urbanization and Industrialization in Canada The impact of industrialization and urbanization in the late 19th and early 20th century on the working class in Canada Submitted By:
Last Edited March 14, Industrialization is a process of economic and social change. It is one that shifts the centres of economic activity onto the focus of work, wages and incomes. These changes took two forms in Canada, beginning in the 19th century. First, economic and social activities were transformed from agriculture and natural resource extraction to manufacturing and services.
Second, economic and social activities shifted from rural cottage industries to urban industrial pursuits. Industrialized production took place under the privately owned factory system, in which a larger proportion of the population expected to be wage earners for all of their working lives.
Therefore, industrialization brought major changes, not only in work and the economy, but in the way society was organized and in the relations among different groups in society. Although it has evolved over nearly two centuries, the process of industrialization is considered revolutionary — as the term Industrial Revolution suggests — because it marked the shift from feudalism to capitalism, and from agriculture to manufacturing and services — changes that fundamentally altered human existence.
Looking northeast at foot of Parliament. International Context While British North America experienced its own industrialization, international developments shaped the way Canadians first experienced it.
Before ConfederationCanada was shaped by its mercantilist relationship to Great Britain. It was a period in which technological advances were made, such as the spinning jenny and steam power.
It was also when innovations in machine tools led to a shift from agriculture to large-scale cottage industries in weaving and textiles. The First Industrial Revolution also brought the development of railways, iron ships and manufacturing tools.
Britain was the first country to experience this phase of industrialization, an experience that began later in Western Europe, the United States and Japan. After mercantilism was ended by the British in the s, British North Americans began to engage in activities that led to early industrialization.
Sherbrooke was one of the milltowns in which early industry developed. Constructing the locomotive Trevithik in At the same time, advances in some sectors of the economy such as brewingmillingtextiles and shipbuilding reshaped economies and laid the basis for even greater industrialization.
The early, petit bourgeois entrepreneurs of the First Industrial Revolution also reflected the growth of an emerging capitalist class, one that largely utilized small- to medium-sized family-run firms.
Industrial investment in this period was often funded through British financing of bonds. Early in industrialization, usually only large factories were able to use the costly and heavy steam engine. The railways spurred industrialization and provided work for skilled men as in this factory in Hamilton, Ontario courtesy Library and Archives Canada.
It was marked by mass automation and the moving assembly line, large-scale factories and time management of workers. During this period, companies reshaped manufacturingconsumption, work and the urban landscape. The Second Industrial Revolution profoundly changed North America, especially the United States, where economies of scale — in the rail, steelconsumer goods and automotive sectors — transformed the economy.
Along with further technological advances and developments in production processes, mass manufacturing came of age. In the automobile industryentrepreneurs and industrialists such as Henry Ford revolutionized mass assembly by creating gigantic factories designed to turn out standardized, inexpensive and durable cars — a departure from the craft approach to manufacturing, which aimed to build luxury vehicles for wealthy customers.
Mass production generated new markets for automobiles, and democratized both the production and consumption of cars.
Factory life changed the economic structure of society. This dynamic occurred in a host of sectors in the Canadian economy, from meat packing to farm implements to small-scale consumer goods to automobile manufacturing. Extraction of natural resourcesparticularly coalforestryoil and gasand metals, fuelled these sectors, and also illustrated the broader impact of manufacturing upon non-urban communities.
There was also significant development of the coal and steel industries in Nova Scotiaalong with some shipbuilding. After Confederation inmanufacturing sectors of the economy were protected by tariffs outlined in the National Policy The policy intended to create and nurture industry in Canada by levying a tax of up to 20 per cent on goods made in other countries.
By the s, American branch plant operations dominated in some industrial sectors in Canada, including automobile assembly, but also in consumer products, chemicals and auto parts. The National Policy also fueled regional grievances.
The West and the Maritimes argued that the policy unfairly benefitted industrialists, workers, bankers and the population of Central Canada.Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration During the Gilded Age, two transforming experiences changed many aspects of American life – industrialization and urbanization.
Four primary factors contributed to the rapid industrialization of America: improved transportation and communication; new inventions and technology; new marketing and merchandizing techniques; and plentiful labor.
The impact of industrialization and urbanization in the late 19th and early 20th century on the working class in Canada Submitted By: Elisha Roberton Course: JWU Y1Y L Instructor: Cheryl Shook Date: Oct 24, Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century was immensely changed for better and for worse because of the industrial .
The impact of industrialization and urbanization in the late 19th and early 20th century on the working class in Canada Submitted By: Elisha Roberton Course: JWU Y1Y L Instructor: Cheryl Shook Date: Oct 24, Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century was immensely changed for better and for worse because of the industrial revolution.
Industrialization leads to urbanization by creating economic growth and job opportunities that draw people to cities. Urbanization typically begins when a factory or multiple factories are. Urbanization and Industry Figure The largest city in English Canada, Toronto covered a relatively small area.
Public celebrations – like this one for the Boer War in – . Urbanization and Industry Figure The largest city in English Canada, Toronto covered a relatively small area. Public celebrations – like this one for the Boer War in – brought thousands into the streets.