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Its history is usually divided into three main phases: Old English — from the arrival of the invaders in the 5th century to around Middle English — roughly to Modern English — about to the present However there were many changes within each phase — for example Early Modern English roughly to is seen as distinct from truly Modern English.
In reality, of course, change has been ongoing through all the phases. However, the invaders brought with them the runic alphabet, known as the futhorc from its first six letters. A few small examples of Old English written in runes have survived.
There were at that time already several distinct English dialects based roughly steps to writing a legal brief the separate kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England. After this the Christian monks started using the Roman alphabet to write English.
At this stage, English spelling was mostly fairly simple, as the letters matched the spoken words quite well. English lost and found Shortly after the Norman Conquest inNorman French replaced English as the language of government and the nobles, but English always remained the language of the common people.
However French words began to be used in English and this has had a deep and lasting effect on the language, not least the spelling. In the end Norman French went into decline after the loss of most of England's French lands.
Then English now Middle English began to be adopted once more for official and literary use. This happened during the 14th century, but the process was not complete until about The early 15th century saw attempts at standardizing English spelling.
The main one is known as the Chancery Standard, because it was used by the Court of Chancery and other official bodies. However, the new system was not consistent. It used both English and French ways of spelling, which accounts for many of the problems in modern English spelling.
Printing adds to the muddle William Caxton first set up in business as a printer in Bruges now in Belgium. There in he made the first printed book in English, the Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye.
Caxton returned to England in and set up a press in Westminster. The first book known to have been printed there was Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Caxton's spelling was based on the Chancery Standard, to which he added his own variants.
Sadly, though printing brought many advantages, it also added to the irregularity of the spelling system. The printers Caxton brought with him from the Low Countries were unused to the English language and made spelling errors, eg any, busy, citie for eny, bisy, cittie. They also sometimes used Dutch spellings, such as adding an h after g, turning words like gost into ghost.
Although many of the changes they made were later weeded out, some of them, like ghost and ghastly, are still with us. The printers also tended to lengthen words. This was driven partly by money — they were paid by the number of lines printed — and partly by page layout, such as making the right-hand side of the text line up neatly.
However in this the printers were only following the centuries-old practice of the legal scribes, who were paid by the inch for their writing.
Another factor was the printing of the first English Bibles at the time of the Reformation. Many of these were printed abroad for fear of persecution, as producing a Bible in English was regarded as heresy. The recopying from texts that were already corrupt and the use of non-English-speaking printers in Europe added to the diversity of spellings.
As there were no dictionaries, and few books of any kind, people tended to copy the spellings they found in any version of the Bible they could look at.
The sound of English alters One of the important factors in the difficulty of English spelling today comes from a change in the sound of spoken English which took place gradually between the 15th and the early 17th centuries.
It was first studied and named by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen — The sound of some of these vowels has altered further between the 17th century and today.
The changes did not all take place at the same time, and there were more stages than those shown in the table on the right. Some of the sounds involved are no longer used in standard English, and there is no distinct spelling for them. Only the vowel sound in the word is relevant.HOW TO BRIEF A CASE I.
Distinctions A. A case brief is a dissection of a judicial opinion -- it contains a written examinations, and (3) for writing and analyzing legal problems. Do not try to memorize case briefs. Learning law is a process of problem solving The steps Although the exact form of your briefs may and can vary from case to.
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Welcome to In Brief What is In Brief? In Brief is a growing legal resource providing information on the laws of England and Wales.
It contains articles on a variety of legal issues, written in layman’s terms by our team of caninariojana.com have extensive legal knowledge and experience in their particular area of the law and provide high quality information on the wide range of topics we cover.
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