Almost all other elements found in nature were made by various natural methods of nucleosynthesis. New atoms are also naturally produced on Earth as radiogenic daughter isotopes of ongoing radioactive decay processes such as alpha decaybeta decayspontaneous fissioncluster decayand other rarer modes of decay.
It sounds like a gadget Tom Swift might inventand which would then be stolen by vaguely Slavic communists. But, for all the silliness that seems to attach to the name, the atomic subterrene was a very real, very serious idea, developed by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory LASL in the s.
It was a startlingly simple proposition: The Beginning In the s, atomic rockets were all the rage. These propulsion reactors shared two common traits. First, because the efficiency of a propulsion reactor is determined by its temperature, the ROVER and ANPO reactors were designed to run at much higher temperatures than conventional reactors for ship propulsion or electricity generation.
And second, since they needed to fit on planes or spaceships, they were designed to be very small, both in mass and volume. The DUMBO reactor consisted of a honeycomb of tungsten and uranium, through which hydrogen gas would be pumped; the nuclear reaction would heat the gas and thus produce thrust.
To test the concept, LASL built a mockup using an electrical heating source in place of the uranium. Gas pumped through the mockup reached o C, an impressive demonstration of the concept.
The CMF-4 group was reassigned, told to spend six months doing brainstorming on anything except rocketry. The group explored all manner of exotic ideas, but only one of them concerns us today. He considered the idea of simply melting the rock out of the way — and he thought of the high-temperature tungsten heating elements used in testing the DUMBO concept.
Potter borrowed a few pieces of local basalt stone from a nearby highway construction site, and the group rigged up a tungsten heating element in the lab. Pressing the white-hot tungsten against the basalt quickly produced a neat little hole.
Interestingly, the molten basalt flowed around the tungsten heating element, forming a sticky surface layer that shielded it from damage by air or water in the rock. Tabletop Thermal Penetrator Further experiments soon followed, culminating in a tabletop device with an outside diameter of 2 inches.
Heated and pressed against rock, the penetrator would melt its way through. The molten rock would flow through a hole in the center of the head and out the back, where high-pressure gas would blow it to the surface. At this point the device was just called a rock-melting penetrator; the name subterrene had not yet been attached to it.
The idea of using nuclear energy was not yet in the mix; the plan was for the penetrator to be powered by a connection to a generator on the surface. In he ordered the group to write up their results and move on to new projects, which they obediently did. The rock-melting penetrator was set aside, although that did not keep the Atomic Energy Commission from obtaining a patent on the idea.
The Los Alamos staff had a habit of meeting at a local pub after work on Fridays to bullshit and kick ideas around in a more congenial environment. On one Friday, someone brought up the old rock-melting penetrator idea, and suggested upgrading it with more modern materials. It was suggested the concept could be improved by using heat pipes to connect a compact nuclear reactor to the tungsten heating element.
Instead of heating the melting head with electricity from the surface, molten lithium would be heated by the reactor and pumped through the melting head. Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, Representative Lujan misunderstood him and thought he was talking about an official Los Alamos program rather than a napkin-back discussion among off-duty scientists.
He expressed his approval of the idea, and of the wisdom of the Atomic Energy Commission for sponsoring such a far-sighted, innovative project, and said he would contact the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy in Washington to express his pleasure with the program. This might prove rather awkward, since of course the AEC would have no idea what he was talking about.
Bradbury had a sense of humor about the whole thing — and, not only that, but felt the atomic penetrator was actually rather a good idea, and that the lab should organize a study of the concept!
During the spring, summer, and fall of a study group met to discuss the feasibility of the system. It was around this time that the device was given its name: This was not the first time someone had tried to apply atomic energy to tunneling.Jun 04, · Atomic number= protons Mass number = protons + neutrons We know the mass number and the proton number: Mass number = Proton number = 80 So we can say = neutrons + 80 neutrons = neutrons = Or simply, neutron number =mass number - atomic number The atom is neutral or uncharged, this means that the number of positive charges must be the same as the Status: Open.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z). For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have exactly 8 protons.. elements have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements.
Chemical Processes Influencing Mercury Transformations And Atmospheric Fluxes In The Rainfall depth versus THg concentration for Pretoria and Cape Point respectively. 40 has an atomic number of 80 and a closed shell electronic configuration (5d10 6s2) (Lin & Pehkonen, It has a freezing point of − °C and a boiling point of °C, both the lowest of any stable metal, although preliminary experiments on copernicium and flerovium have indicated that they have even lower boiling points (copernicium being the element below mercury in the periodic table, following the trend of decreasing boiling points down group 12).
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/ h aɪ ˈ d r ɑːr dʒ ər ə m / hy-DRAR-jər-əm). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is.
OCCULT CHEMISTRY. CHAPTER I.
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY. The deep interest and importance of the research which this book describes will best be appreciated if introduced by an account of the circumstances out of which it arose.